The term microplastics is banded around a lot in the media at the moment – and for a good reason. Plastic is found in our drinking water, soil and has already made it all the way into our food chain. As well as containing inherently harmful chemicals within its own molecular structure, it also attracts other toxic pollutants and brings them along for the ride. So, how has this happened, and what can we do about it?
There are two predominant types of micro plastics found kicking around on our lovely planet earth. Primary Micro-Plastics refer to small plastics 5mm in diameter or less which are manufactured intentionally for certain purposes. Commercial uses include things such as facial exfoliators, toothpastes, scrubs, make up and other cosmetic products. They can also be found used in industrial applications such as air blasting technologies, where high pressure air and small plastic particles are emptied to clean engines, machinery, silos and pretty much any other large scale piece of equipment you can think of. These micro-beads are often used repeatedly before being discarded, and as such are frequently found to be further contaminated with harmful heavy metals such as chromium and lead. Now, although micro beads are harmful to the environment and their use is inherently unsustainable, it should be noted that they make up only a very small percentage of the micro plastic problem.
To understand this we have to look at the second in this particularly nasty category of ocean pollutants: “Secondary Microplastics”.
Secondary Micro-Plastics refer to small plastic pieces 5mm in diameter or smaller, which began life as part of a larger piece of debris. Their origin can be anything made from plastic which has broken down over time. The vast prevalence of micro plastics with uneven shapes suggests that fragmentation is a key source. Fragmentation of large plastic debris is the result of the reduced structural integrity of the plastic, caused by environmental and chemical processes. The problem is that although the plastic is “breaking down” it is never really going away – the plastic becomes smaller and smaller, and is therefore harder to detect, harder to clean up, and easier to consume.
There is another category of micro plastics which has been recognised relatively recently. This is somewhere between primary and secondary micro plastics, and their sources are vast and highly prevalent within the day to day running of our society. Here are a few examples:
There is no denying the helplessness that one can feel when leaping into the micro-plastics rabbit hole – but it’s important not to allow yourself to be feel too overwhelmed and say “F*** it” – there are many things that you can do to help turn the tide and slow the flow of these spreading into our environment and onto your dinner plate.
There is a tendency for people to see environmental issues and problems as trends which don’t concern them. “Look at that hipster with his reusable coffee cup”, “metal straws are for hippies”. Well, fortunately plastic pollution is not a problem which can be politicised or aimed at only certain parts of the market: Plastic pollution is a global issue which affects us all in equal measures. It is therefore our responsibility to help turn off the tap by looking to plastic-free alternatives and being conscious with our every day decisions. This isn’t just for millennials, vegans, hippies and eco warriors – this is for you too.